Accidents and First Aid
Shock is a condition resulting from a depressed state of vital body functions. Shock may be caused by severe injuries of all types, infection, heart attack, poisoning, lack of oxygen. The victims skin is pale or cold to touch. It may be moist and clammy. Victim is weak. Pulse is rapid and faint.
a. Keep victim lying down, lower head or raise feet (except for chest or head injuries).
b. Cover only enough to keep him from losing body heat.
c. Get medical help as soon as possible. Water may be given if medical help will be delayed. DO NOT give water if stomach injury is present or if victim is unconscious or
d. DO NOT move victim if injuries of the neck or lower spine are suspected.
e. Insure air way is open for breathing and give artificial
respiration if necessary.
WHEN TO USE:
The use of artificial respiration is indicated when ever ones normal breathing stops or is reduced so that oxygen intake is insufficient to support life. Some causes of respiratory failure which indicate use of artificial respiration are:
a. Anatomic obstructions such as the tongue drooping, asthma, croup, diphtheria, swelling of the face from burns, swallow- ing poison, direct injury caused by blow.
b. Mechanical obstructions such as swallowed objects, accu- mulation of fluids.
c. Air depleted of oxygen or containing toxic gasses such as carbon monoxide, explosions, suffication.
d. Others such as shock, electrocution, drowning, heart attack, drugs.
MOUTH TO MOUTH METHOD:
1. Wipe any foreign matter from mouth quickly.
2. Tilt victims head backward so that his chin is pointing up- ward.
3. Pinch the victims nostrils shut with the thumb and index fin- ger of your hand that is pressing the victims forehead.
4. Blow air into victims mouth with your mouth widely opened
and sealed around his (on small children cover their mouth and nose with your mouth). Use deep breaths blowing at least once every five seconds.
5. Watch victims chest to see when it rises. Stop when it has expanded and listen for exhaustion. Watch for chest to fall.
6. Repeat cycle until victim begins breathing on his own or un- til trained medical help arrives.
ACCIDENTS & FIRST AID
Convulsions often occur in children at the onset of an acute
infectious disease particularly during high fever. Some of
the symptoms are:
a. Rigidity of body muscles lasting for a few seconds. May
stop breathing, bite tongue and lose bladder and bowel control.
b. Bluish discoloration of face and lips.
a. Prevent victim from hurting himself.
b. Give artificial respiration if indicated.
c. DO NOT place blunt object between teeth.
d. DO NOT restrain him.
e. DO NOT pour any liquid into his mouth.
f. DO NOT place a child in a tub of water.
g. Call for medical help.
a. Place victim in comfortable position, usually sitting up,
particularly if there is shortness of breath.
b. Provide ventilation and guard against drafts.
c. Give artificial respiration if necessary.
d. Call ambulance with oxygen.
e. Look for medicine if victim has been under medical care.
f. DO NOT transport him until you get medical advice, if
available within a reasonable time.
a. Keep the victim quiet and reassure him. Transport him
to a source of medical help as soon as possible.
b. Immobilize the arm or leg in a position below the heart.
c. Apply constricting band (for arm or leg wound only) 2 to 4 inches above bite. You should be able to place your
finger under band when it is in place.
d. Make 1/2 inch incisions. (NOT CROSS-CUT) through the skin at each fang mark and over the venom deposit. The incisions should be through the skin only and in the long axis of the limb NOT ACROSS. DO NOT cut deeper than the skin. DO NOT cut into nerves or muscles.
e. Apply suction with kit or mouth for 30 to 60 minutes.
Venom will not poison stomach, but try not to swallow.
f. Wash wound thoroughly with soap and water and blot
dry. Apply Sterile dry dressing.
g. Treat for shock and give artificial respiration if neces- sary.
h. Telephone ahead to hospital for antivenin.
The symptoms of poisons vary greatly. Aids in determining whether or not a victim has swallowed poison include;
a. Information from victim or witness.
b. Container present.
c. Burns around lips and mouth
d. Breath odor.
a. For strong acids, alkalis, petroleum products or unknown
1) DO NOT induce vomiting.
2) Dilute the poison with water or milk.
3) Try to determine what and how much has been swallowed. (Look for container).
4) Get medical help immediately.
b. For other poisons such as drugs, nonedible mushrooms,
1) Dilute the poison with water or milk.
2) Induce vomiting with baking soda and water or mild soapy water.
3) Get medical help immediately.
4) DO NOT induce vomiting if victim is unconscious or hav- ing convulsions.
SECOND DEGREE BURNS - Those resulting from deep sun-
burn, contact with hot liquids, and flash burns from gas. More painful and deeper. Blisters develope.
a. Immerse the burned part in cold water.
b. Apply freshly laundred cloths, that have been wrung out in ice water
c. Blot dry gently.
d. Apply dry dressing.
e. Do not break blisters or use anti-septic preparation, ointment
or home remedy on a severe burn.
f. Keep burned arms or legs elevated.
THIRD DEGREE BURNS - Those caused by flame, immersion in hot water, contact with hot objects, or electricity. Deep
tissue destruction, white or charred appearance of skin. Loss
of all layers of skin.
a. DO NOT remove adhered particles of charred clothing.
b. Cover burns with thick, sterile dressing.
c. Keep burned arms or legs elevated.
d. DO NOT immerse an extensive burned area or apply ice water. It may cause shock reaction.
e. Get medical help immediately.
f. Treat for shock.
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